We are faced with a fundamental limitation of the solution to the problem when we cannot identify explicit rules that the algorithm should follow. And we need a new approach to automation, different from the classical one. This is where artificial intelligence comes.
AI bypasses the error of the classical approach. This allows the system to identify patterns and learn implicit rules (usually by analyzing thousands of examples) to analyze data (images, sound files, texts, etc.) according to specific schemes (as was the case with the cat).